What is Allopurinol Oral and how does it work?
Allopurinol is a type of medicine called a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This is used for the treatment of gout, certain types of kidney stones, and certain enzyme disorders.
This medicine is used to lower levels of uric acid in the body. Uric acid is made by an enzyme in the body called xanthine oxidase. Allopurinol inhibits the actions of this enzyme and as a result, lowers uric acid levels. The main use of this drug is in preventing attacks of gout which occur as a result of a build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints. It is these crystals that cause the characteristic pain and inflammation of gout. By lowering the production of uric acid, flare-ups of gout can be prevented.
A build-up of uric acid is also responsible for a certain type of kidney disease and some types of kidney stones. In the same way that Allopurinol prevents gout, it can also prevent the formation of new kidney stones.
This is a form of arthritis that can affect anyone. It is characterized by sudden or severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, or tenderness in the joints. It often attacks the joint at the base of the big toe. The affected joint is swollen, hot, and tender. The signs and symptoms of this condition almost always occur suddenly, often at night. They include:
- Limited range of motion – as gout develops, you may not be able to move your joints normally
- Inflammation and redness – the affected joint or joints become tender, swollen, red, and warm
- Lingering discomfort – after the most severe pain subsides, some joint discomfort may last form a few days to a few weeks.
- Intense joint pain – gout usually affects the large joint of your big toe but it can occur in any joint. The pain is likely to be most severe within the first 4 – 12 hours after it begins.
Gout happens when urate crystals mount up in your joint. Wherein, it causes inflammation and intense pain of a gout attack. Urate crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. When it breaks down purines, your body creates uric acid. Purines are substances found naturally in your body. Usually, uric acid dissolves in your blood and passes through your kidneys into your urine. But at times either your body creates excessive uric acid or your kidneys excrete little uric acid as well. Once this occurs, uric acid can build-up and forms a sharp urate crystal in a joint or surrounding tissue that causes inflammation, pain, and swelling.
This usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters. Ureters are the tubes that are connected to the kidneys and bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell. As well as the ureter to spasm can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
- Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating
- Sever and sharp pain in the side back or below the ribs
Certain enzyme disorders
Enzymes are special types of proteins required to break down food molecules into the fuel during metabolism. It is the process by which the body gets energy for normal growth and development. This condition occurs when an abnormal chemical reaction in your body disrupts this process. When this happens, you might have too much of some substances or too little of other ones that you need to stay healthy. There are different groups of disorders. Some affect the breakdown of amino acids, lipids, or carbohydrates.
How to use Allopurinol Oral?
Take this medication by mouth usually once a day or as directed by your doctor. You may take a dose after a meal to lessen stomach upset. If your dose is more than 300 milligrams a day, you will need to take several smaller doses during the day to get this amount. Drink a full glass of water each dose and at least 8 more glasses of fluid a day. If your doctor has directed you to drink less fluid for other medical reasons, consult your doctor for further instructions. Your doctor may instruct you on how to lessen acid in your urine.
The dosage for this medication is based on your medical condition, age, and response to it. Remember to take this drug at the same time and in the same way every day. Let your doctor know if your condition does not improve or if it gets worse.
What are the side effects of Allopurinol Oral?
- Muscle pain
- Changes in your sense of taste
Inform your doctor if you experience:
- Easy bleeding or bruising
- Numbness or tingling of legs or arms
- Unusual tiredness
- Signs of infection
- Change in the amount of urine
- Painful or bloody urination
- Severe stomach or abdominal pain
- Yellowing eyes or skin
- Vision changes
- Eye pain
- Let your doctor know if you are allergic to this drug or if you have any allergies.
- Tell your doctor as well if you have any other medications including vitamins, herbal, or food supplements.
- Do not receive any vaccinations or immunizations without the consent of your doctor while having this medication.
- You should know that this drug may make you drowsy. Do not operate machinery or drive until you know how this drug affects you.
- As your doctor about the safe use of alcoholic beverages while having this treatment. Alcohol may decrease the effectiveness of Allopurinol.
- Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or get pregnant while taking this medication.
- Consult your doctor first before taking a dose of Allopurinol if you are breastfeeding women.
- Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature far from excess heat and moisture.